When Can a Disability Lawyer Use a Fee Petition to Get Paid?
In come cases your disability lawyer can submit a fee petition to Social Security, asking to charge you more than the $6,000 cap on fees for disability claims.
If you lose your disability appeal hearing and your lawyer appeals the case to the Appeals Council and federal court, your lawyer will end up spending more time on your case than usual. In this situation, your lawyer is allowed to submit a fee petition to the Social Security Administration (SSA), asking to charge you more than the usual maximum fee of 25% of your backpay or $6,000, whichever is lower. (Read our article on disability fee agreements to find out more about the usual fee.) In addition, there are several situations where a lawyer may file a fee petition to avoid not being paid at all.
When Is a Fee Petition Used?
Lawyers use fee petitions in the following situations to be able to collect payment.
- You and the attorney had no written fee agreement.
- The SSA did not approve the fee agreement. (If you don't win any past-due benefits, perhaps because the SSA processed your claim quickly and found that your date of disability onset was fairly recent, the SSA won't approve the fee agreement.)
- You fired your attorney.
- The attorney withdrew from your case before the SSA favorably decided the claim.
Attorneys are not prevented from requesting a fee under the fee petition process even if your disability claim is ultimately denied. However, if you and the attorney signed a contingency fee contract where the attorney agreed to charge and collect a fee only if the SSA favorably decided your claim, and the SSA's decision is unfavorable, then the attorney may not collect a fee under the fee petition process. The attorney can submit a fee petition to the SSA after a fee agreement is denied only if you won your disability claim.
If multiple attorneys from different law firms have been involved in the case, each attorney who wants to charge and collect a fee must file a separate fee petition, unless an attorney has waived -- agreed not to collect -- his or her fee.
Requirements of a Fee Petition
Unlike fee agreements, an attorney files a fee petition after the attorney's services in the case have ended. In the petition, the attorney must describe the specific services that you have been provided by the attorney and his or her office. The attorney must send a copy of this fee petition and any attachments to the SSA and to you.
There is no express limit on the amount of an attorney's fee requested under a fee petition, but Social Security ultimately decides the amount of the fee that an attorney receives. Sometimes Social Security will deny a fee petition if the fee is unreasonable or doesn't reflect the amount of time spent on the case.
How Social Security Evaluates a Fee Petition
The SSA will approve a fee only if it's reasonable. To determine how much a reasonable fee would be in a particular case, the SSA will look at the following factors:
- the extent and type of services provided
- the complexity of the case
- the level of skill and competence required in providing the services
- the amount of time spent on the case
- the results the attorney achieved
- the level of appeal the claim went up to and the level at which the attorney began to represent you, and
- the amount the attorney requested for his or her services, not including expenses.
Payment of Out-of-Pocket Expenses
Although the SSA's authorization is required for payment of attorney fees, it is not required for the payment of an attorney's out-of-pocket expenses. These expenses may include the cost of making copies, postage, travel, and obtaining your medical records or birth certificate. Before hiring an attorney, you should discuss with your attorney whether there will be out-of-pocket expenses in addition to the attorney's fee.
Note that Social Security does not allow these expenses to include the cost of paralegal or secretarial services, in-house experts, review of fees, or any share of the attorney's overhead or utility costs. If it appears to the SSA that an attorney is attempting to skip the fee petition process by designating some services as out-of-pocket expenses instead of filing a fee petition, or if the expenses appear unreasonable, then the SSA may require the attorney to provide proof of the actual out-of-pocket expenses.
Direct Payment of Attorney Fees
Payments under a fee petition can be paid directly by Social Security. The SSA has set a program in place for direct payment of attorney fees with disability benefits. Under this program, the SSA will withhold part of your past-due benefits for payment of the authorized fee. (For an attorney to be paid under this system, you must be entitled to past-due benefits.) If the SSA withholds an attorney fee from your benefits, the SSA will collect a service charge from the attorney. This service charge is 6.3% of the fee amount paid. The attorney cannot ask you to pay for this service charge.
If you are not entitled to past-due benefits but you owe your lawyer because the SSA approved the fee petition, you must pay the attorney fee out of your current monthly disability benefits.