Soft tissue injuries and burns often heal in a relatively short amount of time. But after healing, scar tissue can form across joints and skin and can cause lasting functional limitations in the use of one's hands, arms, or legs.
Soft tissue injuries include accidents that damage the skin, muscles, tendons, and/or ligaments.
Social Security will actually evaluate electrical, chemical, and thermal burns as soft tissue injuries as long as you continue to have surgical procedures to improve function. If your surgeries and treatments are done and you're left with extensive skin lesions, Social Security will evaluate your condition under the listing for burns (discussed below).
Muscle strains and sprains are the most common soft tissue injuries (see our article on whiplash for neck strain issues). Cuts, contusions, tendinitis, and bursitis are also soft-tissue injuries.
Most soft tissue injuries heal within a year, so people with these types of injuries don't usually apply for disability benefits through Social Security (which requires conditions to last 12 months). But Social Security does see applications from applicants who have experienced serious soft tissue injuries with multiple surgeries or surgical complications. Here are some examples of soft tissue injuries or complications that sometimes last the required 12 months:
Any of these soft tissue injuries can require surgery, and surgical complications that can lengthen the recovery period include wound infections, sepsis, deep vein thrombosis, and secondary surgeries.
Doctors use three degrees of burns to describe their severity, depending upon the extent of the burn. Below is an overview of the degree of burns, their symptoms, and possible complications.
To qualify for Social Security disability benefits (either Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI)), you must show that you meet the requirements of a medical listing from Social Security's "Blue Book" or prove that you're unable to do any work because of the functional limitations caused by your injuries.
First, we'll look at "meeting a listing."
Soft tissues injuries and burns have two listings in the Social Security Blue Book. One listing covers injuries and burns that are still undergoing surgeries and other treatment, in an attempt to restore function to the injured area, and the other listing is for impairments left from burns after all treatments have been completed.
Injuries or burns that are being treated. To meet the listing for injuries and burns still being treated (listing 1.21), you must:
Burns that are no longer being treated. To meet the listing for burns that are no longer being surgically treated (listing 8.08), you must:
Skin lesions are considered extensive if they result in very serious limitations to more than one body part. Examples include:
For burns that affect respiratory, cardiovascular, renal (kidney), or neurological functions, Social Security will evaluate the impairment under the listings for the body system that is affected. For example, if your lung function has been affected, you will be evaluated under the listings for respiratory disorders.
In evaluating soft tissue injuries and burns, Social Security understands that they often improve over time, so the agency wants to see an ongoing record of treatment and changes in functioning. Notes from your doctors' physical examinations and results from medical imaging are useful to back up the limitations reported by applicants.
For burns and injuries that are receiving ongoing surgical treatments, you should provide all medical records from each surgery and note any side effects of the surgery.
To prove the severity of skin lesions, you should provide evidence that shows the extent of your skin lesions, how often they flare up, how symptoms caused by the lesions (such as pain) limit your functioning, and the treatments you've received, including any side effects from those treatments.
If you don't meet one of the above listings or equal another listing, you can still qualify for benefits if your functional limitations prevent you from doing any work. Social Security will assess your functional abilities using a Residual Functional Capacity (RFC) form, which looks at physical, mental, and sensory limitations.
Applicants who have had a long recovery from soft tissue injuries or burns often have limited use of affected joints or muscles. Physical limitations can also include problems with:
Social Security also looks for sensory limitations that affect the ability to "adapt to one's surroundings." Injuries to hearing and seeing, or to the sense of touch, can impair the ability to work in certain types of locations. The risk of infection can also limit the type of workplace in which an individual can work.
Ongoing, severe complications can cause frequent absences from work and even frequent hospitalizations. In determining whether an applicant is disabled, Social Security strongly considers not being able to have regular attendance at a full-time job.
To learn more about the RFC assessment and how your functional limitations affect Social Security's disability determination, see our series of articles on how Social Security decides if you can do any work.
An easy way to start your disability application is to file online with the SSA. You don't have to finish the application all at once; just make sure that you keep track of the application number given to you when you start the application, so you can access it again if you need to come back to it.
You can also apply for disability benefits by phone by calling 800-772-1213 from 8 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Monday through Friday. If you're deaf or hard of hearing, you can call the TTY number at 800-325-0778.
You can apply for disability benefits in person at your local Social Security field office, when the COVID pandemic is over and field offices have reopened.
If you'd like help with your application, you can work with an SSDI expert, who will help you fill out the application and make sure you have the proper medical evidence. According to a survey of our readers, applicants who filed an initial application without expert help were denied 80% of the time. You can try to set up a free case evaluation with a disability lawyer or advocate to see if you have a strong case for benefits.