Hydrocephalus is a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull that causes the brain to swell. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential to the brain because it allows the brain to float within your skull, it cushions the brain if your head is jerked, it removes waste products of the brain, and it maintains constant pressure in the brain.
The two types of hydrocephalus that affect adults primarily are hydrocephalus ex-vacuo and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo is caused by damage to the brain from a stroke, accident, or other types of traumatic brain injury. Normal pressure hydrocephalus can occur in people at any age and is a slow moving, progressive buildup of fluid in the skull. The causes of normal pressure hydrocephalus can include head injuries, brain tumors, infections, or bleeding in the brain.
Symptoms that can be associated with hydrocephalus include headache, vomiting, blurred or double vision, problems with balance, coordination, and walking, nerve damage, urinary incontinence, fatigue, drowsiness, loss of memory, difficulty thinking, irritability, and changes in personality. Some of the symptoms may get better once the hydrocephalus is cured, while other impairments may permanently affect the individual.
If the hydrocephalus is not treated, symptoms can get worse over time. The severity of the impairment caused by hydrocephalus usually directly related to how bad the initial symptoms were and how long it took to get diagnosed and treated.
The most common treatment for hydrocephalus is the surgical placement of a shunt, which is a type of drain that is placed in your brain to allow the fluid to drain properly. There are several complications that can occur: infections in the shunt can cause cognitive defects, neurological problems, seizures, and even death if not properly treated. Obstructions in the shunt and over drainage or under drainage of fluid through the shunt can lead to hearing loss, fatigue, severe headaches, muscle weakness, and loss of motor function. Hemorrhaging can also occur and may lead to severe neurological problems.
You cannot get disability automatically for hydrocephalus because it is not a specifically listed condition in Social Security's "blue book" of listed impairments. Instead, in order to receive Social Security Disability benefits for hydrocephalus, you must show that your symptoms are equal in severity to those of a listed impairment or that the limitations caused by the condition makes it impossible for you to do any type of work that you are trained for or could be trained for.
Based on the impairments that can arise due to hydrocephalus or the causes behind the hydrocephalus, there are various disability listings that your condition may "meet" or "equal," including:
Organic mental disorders. Hydrocephalus can cause changes in your ability to think or remember things and your mood. The disability listing for organic mental disorders may apply if you have suffered a drop in IQ or changes in your mental or cognitive abilities that greatly affect your ability to function regularly. Or, if you have had an organic mental disorder for at least two years that has impacted your ability to work and is not well controlled despite receiving medical care, you can qualify this way. See our article on disability for lowered IQ for more information.
Stroke. Hydrocephalus can cause loss of motor function in any part of the body. The disability listing for central nervous system vascular incidents may apply if you have damage to the brain from the hydrocephalus that causes speech problems or difficulty walking or using your arms and hands. See our article on disability following stroke for more information.
Epilepsy. While hydrocephalus is not a common cause of epilepsy, shunts can cause seizures. The epilepsy disability listing may apply if you suffer seizures at least once a month with loss of consciousness, night seizures that affect your ability to function during the day, or seizures at least once a week that cause significant interference with daily activities. See our article on disability for seizures for more information.
Cerebral trauma. The disability listing for cerebral trauma uses the criteria from the above mentioned listings and may apply to impairments that are caused by hydrocephalus. See our article on disability for traumatic brain injuryfor more information.
Soft tissue tumors of the head and neck. Hydrocephalus is sometimes caused by tumors in the brain. The listing for brain tumors may apply if you have tumor(s) that are inoperable, do not respond to treatment, or have spread to other areas of the body.
For those with hydrocephalus, the impairments that you suffer from as a result of the condition may be severe though they do not meet or equal a disability listing. It is still possible to receive Social Security Disability benefits if you can show that you are unable to perform any type of work.
Social Security will look at the physical, mental, and sensory limitations caused by hydrocephalus when determining whether or not you can perform any type of work. The agency will create an RFC (residual functional capacity) assessment for you that details your physical abilities, such as your ability to stand, walk, or carry; your mental abilities, such as your ability to complete tasks in a timely manner, get along with others, and respond appropriately to direction; and your sensory abilities, such as your ability to see and hear properly. Hydrocephalus can affect individuals in all areas:
Social Security will consider all of the abilities and limitations listed in your RFC in determining whether you can perform any type of work. (For more information, see our article on how RFCs determine disability.)
If you don't qualify for Social Security Disability benefits initially, as is true for most people, you may either reapply or appeal for disability benefits if your condition becomes worse, as is often seen with hydrocephalus. At this point, you may want to consider having a disability attorney help you.