Generalized anxiety is a disorder in which anxiety (persistent feelings of worry, apprehension, tension, or uneasiness) is often present, even when little or nothing is happening to provoke it. Anxiety disorders are the most common of emotional disorders, affecting about 40 million adults in the U.S.
Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can include overwhelming feelings of panic and fear, uncontrollable obsessive thoughts, recurring nightmares, and painful, intrusive memories. Some people also suffer from constant worry, irritability, insomnia, tiredness, difficulty focusing, and constantly being on alert for perceived threats.
While these symptoms may seem obvious to many, not everyone knows that chronic anxiety can lead to physical symptoms as well. Physical symptoms caused by anxiety can include increased heart rate, sweating, shaking, nausea, muscle tension, an easy startle reflex, and other uncomfortable physical reactions.
Anxiety disorder differs from normal feelings of nervousness—the symptoms of anxiety disorder often occur for no apparent reason and do not go away. Rather than functioning as a call to action, these alarming reactions can make everyday experiences sources of potential terror. If left untreated, anxiety disorders can propel people to take extreme measures (such as refusing to leave the house) to avoid situations that may trigger or worsen their anxiety. Job performance and personal relationships inevitably suffer as a result.
There are several types of anxiety disorder:
Not all cases of anxiety are severe enough to make an individual eligible for Social Security disability benefits. Disability benefits are available only to those who suffer a severe and "marked" impact on their lives as a result of their disability. For example, a person with moderate anxiety who can still shower and get dressed every day and go grocery shopping and cook meals is probably not going to be eligible for benefits. On the other hand, individuals who experience significant interference with their ability to concentrate, to leave the house for errands, or do other normal daily activities may be able to qualify.
In addition to the requirement that the anxiety is sufficiently severe, the SSA also requires that the disability be a long-term one. This means someone's inability to work due to anxiety must have lasted 12 months at the time of the application, or it must be expected to last for 12 months.
The SSA provides guidance as to how severe someone's anxieties or fears must be to make that person eligible for benefits. This guidance is found in the SSA's listing of impairments, which is a list of covered disabilities. The listing provides details on the symptoms and limitations a person must have for a particular disability to be considered disabling.
Social Security's listing for anxiety disorders, listing 12.06, has several parts.
The first part of the listing specifies that, to qualify for disability benefits on the basis of anxiety, you must have a diagnosis of anxiety disorder with at least three of the following symptoms:
• difficulty concentrating
• muscle tension
• sleep disturbance (such as insomnia), and/or
• getting tired easily.
The second part of the listing requires you to also meet "functional" criteria to show that you have a loss of abilities due to the disorder. Specifically, you must have an extreme limitation in at least one of the following areas, or a "marked" limitation in at least two of the following areas:
Alternative to the second part of the listing. Some disability applicants can't show that they currently have marked or extreme functional limitations because their anxiety has improved due to living in a highly structured or protected situation or undergoing intense therapy. In this case, there's an alternative to the second part of the listing.
You can meet a different set of functional criteria if your disorder has been medically documented as "serious and persistent" over a period of at least two years and you can show that you have been living in a "highly structured setting" or receiving ongoing medical treatment, mental health therapy, or "psychosocial support" that lessens the symptoms of your anxiety. You must also show that you have "minimal capacity to adapt" to demands that are not already part of your daily life or to changes in your environment.
This alternative set of functional criteria recognizes that there are some people who may not be showing symptoms (such as not interacting well with others or not being able to take care of themselves) because they live in highly protected and supervised situations. Special living arrangements can make one's functional abilities appear better than would be the case in real-life situations, where stress and demands on someone's emotional state would be greater.
In other words, someone's condition is "marginal," in that it's expected they wouldn't be able to perform the work if they had to be in a full-time, work-like environment. Sometimes people are able to manage their symptoms until they have to be in a work environment, and then they start to suffer from severe job anxiety and are unable to function at work. In some cases, an applicant can fulfill this set of alternative criteria by attempting to return to work and failing due to anxiety symptoms.
If the SSA finds that your symptoms don't fit into one of the above serious conditions, you may be able to get disability through a medical-vocational allowance (by showing you can't function enough to do any type of work). If an applicant's generalized anxiety is so severe that it prevents them from performing any of their past jobs or any other type of work, the SSA should award them disability benefits. Social Security disability examiners consider an individual's age, education, work history, and functional capacity when they make these types of medical-vocational determinations.
The SSA will want to see notes from your therapist, psychologist, or psychiatrist and the results of any psychological testing or evaluations you've had. If you've seen multiple behavioral health professionals over the years, try to get records from as many of them as possible. Your records should include any anxiety medications you've taken, whether they were successful in lessening your anxiety, and what the side effects were.
One of the forms you'll need to complete as part of your application is a questionnaire about your "activities of daily living," or ADLs. The form is called the Adult Function Report, and it asks you to explain how your anxiety affects your daily life. The form asks about things like housework, meals, yard work, shopping, handling your finances, your social activities, and most importantly, how your symptoms limit your ability to work.
Be detailed in your responses. For example, if you were having a bad episode of anxiety at work, what would that look like? Would you make mistakes? Would you forget the instructions your boss gave you, and have to ask for them again? Would you not be able to finish any tasks? Would you take frequent bathroom breaks? If you had frequent absences from work due to anxiety, state exactly how many days you missed per month. Also try to explain what triggers your anxiety at work, and at home.
An easy way to apply for Social Security disability benefits is to file your claim online at www.ssa.gov/applyfordisability. You can also file a claim over the phone by contacting the SSA at 800-772-1213, but be prepared for long wait times. For more information, please see our article about applying for Social Security disability benefits.
If you have questions or you'd like help with your application, click for a free case evaluation with a legal professional. Working with a disability expert can help you get the evidence you need to convince the SSA that you are disabled enough to qualify for benefits.
Your claim will be assigned to a specialist for review, and you may be required to attend an interview or even undergo a consultative mental exam with an SSA-approved psychiatrist or psychologist to verify your condition. The process can take several months, but the more evidence and medical documentation you are able to provide, the better your chances of being able to get your claim approved.
Note that the rules regarding disability for children are different; for more information, see our article on disability benefits for anxiety in children.
Updated December 2, 2021