Spinal stenosis is a condition that causes a narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord and nerves. Stenosis is usually the result of the aging process, but a bulging or ruptured disc can also cause it. Spinal stenosis usually affects individuals above 50 years of age or older, and both males and females are affected.
Spinal stenosis can occur in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) areas of the spine. Severe cases of lumbar stenosis can progress to affecting the cauda equina nerves (a bundle of nerve roots that descends from the end of the spinal cord). Stenosis can compress the cauda equina, causing muscle weakness and pain or cramping extending from the buttocks down through the leg (called "pseudoclaudication") that may affect your ability to stand or walk and can also cause bladder and bowel issues.
Foraminal stenosis is a specific type of spinal stenosis where the foramina, or openings on the sides of the vertebrae, get smaller, causing the nerves passing through to get pinched. Stenosis or encroachment of a foramen can be caused by deterioration of the spine, enlargement of the facet joints, or the growth of bone spurs, which are in turn caused by osteoarthritis.
Symptoms of lumbar stenosis include pain in the lower back, sciatica (pain that extends down the leg), numbness or tingling in the legs or feet, weakness in the thighs or calves, and loss of deep tendon reflexes (DTR). Walking and standing for long periods can aggravate pain caused by lumbar stenosis; sitting often relieves the discomfort, in contrast with other causes of back pain.
Symptoms of cervical (neck) stenosis can include neck pain, numbness or tingling in the arms or hands, weakness of the upper or lower limbs, and problems with walking and balance.
Treatment for spinal stenosis, either lumbar or cervical, depends upon the area affected; there are, however, surgical options for both types of spinal stenosis.
Social Security does have an official listing for lumbar spinal stenosis in its Listing of Impairments (called the Blue Book). If you meet the requirements in the listing, you can automatically qualify for disability benefits. Beware, this listing is complicated; you'll likely need your doctor's help to read through it and determine whether you might meet the requirements of the listing.
To qualify as disabled under this listing, you must have all of the following:
When you apply, notes from a detailed physical exam with your doctor should be in your medical records, including the results of testing your reflexes and muscle strength. Your doctor should also note any limitations you have, such as whether you need a walker, cane, or other assistive device and how long you can sit without changing position.
These functional restrictions will be helpful when Social Security assesses your residual functional capacity (RFC). If you are able to walk and get around without the assistance of assistive devices or people, you won't qualify for benefits automatically under the above listing, but Social Security will give you an RFC and use it to determine if there are any jobs you can do. Similarly, if you have cervical stenosis, Social Security will not use the above listing, but will instead evaluate your RFC. (For more information, see how Social Security uses RFCs for back problems.)
Your medical records should also include the medications you are taking, any negative side effects, and the treatments you have had, such as physical therapy, spinal decompression, or steroid injections. You should also have the results of an MRI or CT scan supporting a diagnosis of stenosis.
If you're applying for Social Security disability insurance (SSDI), you can file your entire claim online on Social Security's website. If you're not comfortable online, you can call Social Security at 800-772-1213 to start your claim. Most individuals filing for SSI only cannot file the whole application online, but they can get started on Social Security's website. For more information, see our article on applying for Social Security disability benefits.
Unless you have lumbar stenosis so severe that you need assistance walking, you probably won't get disability benefits automatically. You'll need to rely on your doctor to submit your functional restrictions to Social Security so that the agency can create an accurate RFC for you, and to have objective medical evidence to back it up. A disability lawyer can definitely help you line this up, and knows the questions to ask your doctor regarding your stenosis and your limitations.
Updated April 13, 2021