For individuals who support a family, becoming disabled can be very difficult not only emotionally and physically, but financially as well. Social Security provides insurance in cases when a disability disrupts the ability of an individual to work and support their family. Depending on the type of Social Security benefit you receive, your children may also be eligible for Social Security monthly benefits, based on a percentage of the amount of money that you are awarded.
If you worked a sufficient amount of time before you became disabled, you could receive a monthly Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) check based on the amount of time you worked and how much money you paid into the Social Security system. Your dependents can also get a monthly benefit when you start receiving SSDI.
If you don't have enough work history to qualify for SSDI, or you worked at a job that didn't pay into Social Security, you could receive benefits based on need, from Supplemental Security Income (SSI). But only SSDI provides dependents benefits to your children. SSI provides no benefit to anyone but the disabled individual, though disabled children themselves can receive disability benefits under SSI.
Social Security may provide benefits to your children if you become disabled and qualify for SSDI. Social Security considers biological children, adopted children, or dependent stepchildren to be children of the disabled individual.
A child may receive benefits if they are
Unmarried children who are 18 years old or older may receive benefits in two circumstances:
If you have grandchildren or step-grandchildren whom you are raising, they may be eligible to receive SSDI benefits as if they were your child. Grandchildren may receive benefits if:
If you adopt your grandchildren, they do not need to meet the above requirements. They would be covered as children because they were adopted.
To apply for benefits for your child, you will need at least your Social Security number, your child's Social Security number, and your child's birth certificate. If your child does not already have a Social Security number, you will have to obtain one through Social Security before you can apply for the children's benefit. There may be other information that is needed; for example, if you are trying to obtain benefits for a full-time student who is over the age of 18, you will need to provide proof of enrollment in school. When meeting with Social Security to receive these benefits, you will be told if any additional information is necessary.
How much your child receives in benefits depends upon how much money you, as the disabled individual, receive as an SSDI benefit. Generally, your child will receive up to 50% of your total SSDI benefit. It is important to note that there is a maximum amount that a family can receive based on one disabled individual's benefits. The family limit is usually 150% - 180% of the SSDI benefit awarded to the disabled individual. If your family would receive above that percentage, each individual receiving a benefit (with the exclusion of the disabled individual) will have their percentage of benefit lowered proportionally until the total benefit is below the percentage limit.
For example, if you're a single mother with four children and you become disabled, each child could potentially receive 50% of your SSDI award. However, if each child received 50% of your award, Social Security would be paying out 300% of your total award (100% received by you and 50% received by each of your four children), which Social Security wouldn't allow. With the maximum family benefit rules, you would receive your 100% as the disabled individual and your children would have their percentages lowered equally until the total family benefit fell below the percentage limit set by Social Security.
Generally, children will receive dependent SSDI benefits until they reach the age of 18 years old. The benefit will end the month before their 18th birthday.
If your child is a full-time student, the benefit will end when they graduate from or leave secondary school or two months after they turn 19, whichever happens first.
If your child is disabled, and became disabled before the age of 22, his or her monthly dependent benefit will continue indefinitely. (But consider if your child could receive greater benefits if he or she worked and were to apply for benefits as a disabled adult.)
Yes, your child could receive a monthly survivors benefit for as long as he or she is eligible (according to the same rules as above). For more information, see our article on survivors disability benefits.