A felony conviction alone won't usually keep you from being approved for disability benefits through the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Most people who are convicted of crimes can get Social Security benefits. Likewise, a conviction won't affect your dependents or survivors benefits through Social Security. But if you get sent to jail or prison, your benefits can be suspended during the time you're imprisoned.
The general rule is that a felony conviction has no impact on eligibility for Social Security or SSI benefits. There are a few exceptions to this rule.
You are not eligible for Social Security disability benefits (SSDI) if:
But even if one of the above situations applies to you, it's worthwhile to apply for SSDI benefits. Even though you won't get cash benefits, you might be granted a period of disability that will "freeze" your earnings record for Social Security, which can prevent your eventual retirement or dependents benefits from decreasing because of the time you're off work.
The Social Security Administration (SSA) won't pay benefits to those who are confined in a jail, prison, or other penal institution, for either a felony or a misdemeanor. Because your food, shelter, and medical needs are met during periods of imprisonment, you aren't eligible for benefits while you're incarcerated–unless you participate in an approved vocational rehabilitation program (a program that helps you return to work upon your release).
Your SSDI benefits will be suspended after 30 days of incarceration (unless you participate in a rehabilitation program). Your SSDI benefits will be reinstated the month following your release.
Your SSI benefits will be suspended after you are incarcerated for one full calendar month (unless you participate in a rehabilitation program). Your SSI benefits may be reinstated without a new disability application only if you are released from custody before your benefits have been suspended for 12 months. You must report to Social Security when you enter or leave an institution.
Learn about disability benefits when you move from jail to a halfway house or mental health facility under the supervision of the Department of Corrections.
Social Security won't pay benefits to people who flee to avoid arrest or prosecution or escape to avoid jail or prison. Specifically, "fugitive felons" aren't entitled to benefits when they have outstanding warrants for any of the three following offenses:
These rules are known as the "fleeing felon" rules and were modernized in Martinez v. Astrue (settled in 2009). Social Security can't stop paying benefits to someone because they have a warrant for any other than the three offenses listed above.
Parole violators aren't entitled to benefits during any month that they are violating the terms of their parole or probation. But Social Security can't stop paying benefits to someone solely because they have a warrant for a parole or probation violation. Social Security must look into whether the person actually violated parole or probation. (Clark v. Astrue, 602F.3d 140 (2nd Cir. 2010).)
Convictions for certain federal offenses involving subversive activities, such as treason, sabotage, and similar crimes, can limit your eligibility for SSDI benefits. In these cases, courts are authorized to issue orders providing that some of the income you earned won't be used to calculate your Social Security benefit. Specifically, wages paid to you during or before the quarter in which the conviction occurred, or net earnings from self-employment during or before the taxable year in which the conviction occurred, can be excluded from the determination of your disability benefit amount.
A convicted felon can apply for benefits while still imprisoned if the jail or prison has a pre-release application procedure (and possibly an agreement with the Social Security Administration providing for pre-release applications). Otherwise, a convicted felon can apply for benefits immediately upon release from prison or jail.
Outside of the few exceptions mentioned above, having a criminal record or being arrested should not affect your application for benefits.
Updated May 17, 2022