If you need time off work for health, disability, or caregiving reasons, you might be protected by the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). The FMLA is a federal law that gives eligible employees the right to take time off work, unpaid, to recover from serious medical conditions and care for ailing family members, among other things. Below, we explain the basics of taking FMLA leave, including who qualifies for leave, what situations the law covers, and your right to reinstatement when your leave is through.
You qualify for FMLA leave if you work for a covered employer and you meet the law’s eligibility requirements.
Employers must comply with the FMLA if they have at least 50 employees. For this purpose, employees include those who work full time, those who work part time, and employees who are on leave and expected to return to work.
Not all employees who work for covered employers are eligible to take FMLA leave. To qualify for leave, you must:
The FMLA gives employees the right to take time off for their own serious health conditions, to care for a family member with a serious health condition, to bond with a new child, and for military family leave.
Eligible employees may take FMLA leave for their serious health condition (or to care for a family member with a serious health condition). Most disabilities qualify as serious health conditions, but not all do. To use FMLA leave, you (or your family member) must have an injury, impairment, illness, or physical or mental condition that involves:
You may take FMLA leave to care for your spouse (this includes same-sex spouses), parent, or child, but not for a grandparent, aunt, uncle, in-law, or other relative.
FMLA parental leave is available if you are unable to work during pregnancy or to bond with a newborn, newly adopted child, or a newly placed foster child. You must take this leave within a year after the child arrives or, if necessary, you can use leave before the child arrives. For example, you may need leave for pregnancy disability (covered as a serious health condition) for several weeks before the baby is born.
You may use FMLA leave for two types of military family needs:
For more information on the FMLA’s military family leave provisions, see Nolo's article on taking military family leave.
For all types of FMLA leave, except military caregiver leave, employees may take up to 12 weeks off in a 12-month period. Most employers use a “rolling” method of counting when the 12-month period stops and starts; with this method, the 12-month period starts when an employee first takes leave. Other employers use a calendar year or fiscal year.
Employees can take up to 26 weeks off for military caregiver leave. However, this leave entitlement does not generally renew each year, like other types of FMLA leave. Military caregiver leave is available once per service member, per injury. An employee would be entitled to an additional period of leave if another family member was injured during military service or if the same family member suffered a new injury during military service. But for the same family member and the same injury, this leave is available only once.
You do not necessarily have to take all of your FMLA leave at once. If you are taking leave for a disability (yours or a family member’s), you may take leave intermittently—a few days or hours at a time—or work on a reduced schedule if it’s medically necessary. Intermittent or reduced schedule military leave is also available for caregiving or for qualifying exigencies. However, if you want to take intermittent or reduced schedule leave to care for a new child (for example, to return to work part time), your employer must agree to the request.
While you are on FMLA leave, you are entitled to continue your group health insurance benefits, if your company provides them. If you usually pay part of the premium, your employer can require you to continue paying your share.
FMLA leave is unpaid. However, you can (or your employer can require you to) use your accrued paid leave (vacation or sick time) during your time off, as long as your reason for taking leave is covered by your employer’s plan. For example, if you are taking FMLA leave due to your disability, you could use your accrued sick leave to get paid for some or all of that time off. But if you are using FMLA leave to care for a family member, you could use accrued sick leave only if your employer’s plan allows employees to use sick leave to care for others who are ill, not just for their own health problems.
If you need leave for a foreseeable reason (such as surgery that has been scheduled long in advance or having a baby), you must give your employer notice at least 30 days in advance. If you need leave for an unforeseeable reason (you are hospitalized following an accident, for example), you must give as much leave as is practical under the circumstances.
Your employer will provide you with paperwork explaining your rights and obligations under the FMLA. If you are taking leave for a disability, you may need to provide a medical certification from the health care provider. If you are taking leave because of a family member, you may also have to provide other documents, such as proof of a family relationship or information regarding your family member’s military service. For more information, see our article on FMLA's required notices and certifications.
When you finish taking FMLA leave, if you are still able to perform your job duties, you have the right to be reinstated to your former position or one that is equivalent to it in all important respects, including pay, job duties, shift, schedule, and so on. All of your employee benefits must be reinstated, as well. There are a handful of situations when reinstatement might not be required (for example, if your job was eliminated while you were on leave), but these are exceptions to the general rule.
If you don't have to same ability to do your job when you return because of a disability, your employer must try to accommodate you so that you can do the job with your impairments—if it's reasonable to do so. For more information, see our article that discusses your right to accommodations when you return from a medical leave.
If you don't get your old job back, or your employer denies you leave in the first place, you have the right to sue to be reinstated, take leave, and/or get money damages. For more information, see our article on what you can win in an FMLA case.