Survey Statistics: Social Security Disability Approval Rates for Common Medical Conditions

The most important factors determining whether you'll get disability benefits are the nature and severity of your medical conditions.

We surveyed readers across the U.S. who recently went through the process of applying for SSDI or SSI. Here's what we learned about how the nature of their medical problems affected the outcome of their claims.

Our survey shows that it's more difficult to receive benefits for some kinds of medical problems (known as "impairments") than others. There are several reasons for these differences, including how serious the diagnosis is, what doctors predict about its future course (your prognosis), and how hard it may be to prove that the impairment keeps you from working.

Disability Approval Rates by Medical Condition

Obviously, there's a wide range of medical conditions that can make someone disabled. But relatively few impairments account for a significant portion of disability applications. The most common are back problems (22% of readers in our survey), followed by depression and other mood and anxiety disorders (16% of our readers).

These common medical conditions didn't have the highest approval rates. About a third (34%) of readers with back and other spinal problems were approved (see our disability survey results on back conditions). And less than four in ten (37%) were approved for mood and anxiety disorders (note that other impairments in the category of mental disorders had higher approval rates; see our survey results on mental or emotional conditions).

For other common impairments, our survey showed that the likelihood of receiving benefits can vary widely depending on the nature of your medical problem—from a low of 40% for osteoarthritis and other joint diseases to highs of 68% for multiple sclerosis and 64% for all types of cancer. Less than half (47%) of readers with various types of respiratory problems were approved for benefits, but the rate was somewhat higher (50%) for those with serious disorders like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema.

Recent government statistics support our general survey findings. According to the Social Security Administration's Annual Statistical Report on the SSDI and SSI programs, of people who were granted disability benefits in 2021, about one-third were awarded based on musculoskeletal diseases (including many common back conditions) followed by mental disorders, impairments of the circulatory system, and nervous system (neurological) disorders.

When looking at these results, it's important to keep a few things in mind:

  • There is a wide range of severity—from less serious to very severe—within these common impairments. For instance, for readers with metastasized cancer (meaning that it spread from the original site in the body), approval rates were significantly higher (78%) compared to the approval rates for cancer that had not spread (44%).
  • These approval rates represent the percentage of readers who received benefits awards at some point in the process—either at the initial application stage or at a later hearing on appeal. In general, readers who requested a hearing were twice as likely to be approved for benefits as those who didn't (more on that below).
  • Many disability applicants have more than one medical problem (in fact, a 2018 study from Social Security found that 71% of claimants listed secondary impairments). Our survey results (as well as government statistics) track outcomes for the primary impairment that applicants listed. But when applicants have several medical conditions at the same time, it can be easier to convince disability examiners and judges that the combined effects of those conditions limit their ability to work.

Improving Outcomes for Common Impairments

It's not surprising that some impairments are more likely to result in disability awards than others. Obviously, you can't do much to change your medical diagnosis in order to improve the outcome of your SSDI or SSI case. Still, there are steps you can take to tilt the odds in your favor, including requesting a hearing if your application is denied at first. Our survey showed that the average approval rate for readers with all types of impairments jumped from 23% at the initial stage to 46% at the hearing stage.

Government statistics (from 2007-2015) also show significantly higher approval rates after a hearing for the most common impairments, including MS (80%), chronic respiratory disorders (66%), osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis and related disorders (64%), back disorders (63%), mood and anxiety disorders (59%), and non-arthritic joint disease (58%, which the government lists separately from osteoarthritis).

One reason for this increase in approval rates at the hearing stage is that by the time the hearing is scheduled, the applicant's condition has often gotten worse. This is especially true for progressive diseases like MS and in regions where it takes close to two years to get a hearing.

Another reason for the improved outcomes after a hearing may be that more people hire a lawyer at this point. In our survey, 71% of readers who went to a hearing were represented by an attorney. (Social Security statistics show a similar rate of legal representation at the hearing stage.) Their lawyers would have made sure that the applicants visited the doctor within 60 days of the hearing date and underwent key tests to strengthen the medical evidence on file.

Our survey supports this point. For all types of medical problems, 60% of readers who were represented by an attorney were approved for benefits, compared to 34% of those who didn't hire a lawyer. Experienced disability attorneys know the system, the rules, and even the tendencies of local judges. Their assistance can be critical.

Hearing Approval Rates for Other Common Impairments

Here are some additional approval statistics from Social Security (covering 2007-2015) on the approval rates after hearing for common primary impairments.

The Importance of Limitations vs. Diagnosis

To Social Security claims examiners, medical consultants, and judges, a disability applicant's diagnosis is usually far less important than the severity of the functional limitations that the applicant's condition causes. (Examples of limitations are: not being able to stand for more than two hours, not being able to lift more than 20 pounds frequently, or not being able to interact with the public.)

According to Social Security data, in half of all approved disability claims, applicants received benefits only after the Social Security Administration performed a medical-vocational analysis, looking at the applicant's physical or mental limitations as well as age, work history, and education. In contrast, only 43% of applicants were approved for benefits because their diagnosis and medical condition met or equaled the requirements of one of Social Security's impairment listings. (The impairment listings lay out the exact criteria and test results an applicant must have to be considered disabled automatically.)

Further, most of Social Security's listings now require the applicant to have specific limitations. For instance, for multiple sclerosis, an applicant has to prove he or she has a severe physical limitation such as the inability to stand up, balance, or use the arms effectively. Similarly, a psychiatric diagnosis alone is not enough to get disability benefits for any mental, emotional, or cognitive disorder, even for a serious illness such as schizophrenia; functional limitations are required to prove disability.

So while some diagnoses are more likely to be approved for benefits than others, it's usually because the limitations associated with those impairments are severe. There are a few exceptions to this rule: several medical conditions can qualify for benefits based on a simple diagnosis alone; these include ALS, metastatic cancer, and certain recent organ transplants.

Updated July 17, 2023


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