Social Security disability and SSI benefits are available to all eligible people regardless of their race or ethnicity. However, the Social Security Administration (SSA) has developed some resources and benefits specifically to serve American Indian and Alaska Native communities.
American Indians and Alaska Natives are eligible to receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI). SSI is available only to disabled or elderly individuals who meet certain income and resource limits. Social Security counts income from earned sources (like working) and unearned sources (like interest payments from investments). Resources are things like stocks, bank accounts, or land.
Social Security won't count everything you own when determining whether you meet the resource limits, however. The types of assets that don't count towards SSI eligibility are called exclusions. Although some income and resource exclusions are available to everyone, there are also certain exclusions available only to American Indians or Alaska Natives.
Specific Native American and Alaska Native tribes or nations may be able to exclude income or assets they received from the following sources from the SSI resource limits:
However, specific rules and requirements must be met for you to be entitled to the exclusions under these programs. You can read about them on the Indian-Related Exclusions page on the SSA's website.
Note that Social Security does count the Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) that all Alaskans receive each October when determining continuing eligibility for SSI benefits. You can read more about it here.
Here is a list of the tribes or nations that may be eligible for the income or resource exclusions discussed above:
If you don't see your tribe or nation, contact the SSA.
American Indians and Alaska Natives may also be able to exclude income from the following sources when calculating SSI eligibility:
Click on the links above to learn more about the specific requirements for these exclusions.
SSI amounts are determined by finding the difference between the Federal Benefit Rate (in 2023, $914) and your countable income(your income minus the deductions discussed above). Alaska also provides a supplement to SSI recipients called Adult Public Assistance (APA). If you qualify for SSI and are a resident of Alaska, you can receive APA income in addition to the federal amount.
The amount you receive depends on your living situation. As of 2023, you can get APA income in the amount of $362 as a single person in Alaska. If you're single and are getting help with food and housing, you would qualify for $365 in APA (but your SSI payment will be cut by one-third). If you live in an assisted living facility, and Medicaid pays for more than half the cost of your care, you will get only $170 in APA.
You can get more information on SSI and APA amounts in Alaska here.
The SSA has developed a website to serve the unique needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives. You can check out the AIAN website here.
Some tribal social services offices work with the SSA to have their employees make scheduled visits to the tribal office. In this case, you may be able to apply for Social Security disability or SSI at your tribal office during a scheduled time. Call your tribal social services office to see if this option is available.
CMS Tribal Affairs is part of the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). This federal agency works with American Indian and Alaska Native tribes to provide healthcare access to members of tribal groups eligible for Medicaid or Medicare.
If you're approved for SSI, you may be eligible for Medicaid immediately. If you're approved for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), you'll be eligible for Medicare after a two-year waiting period.
Eligibility for Alaska Residents for Medicare and Medicaid. Due to the high cost of living, Alaska has its own poverty guidelines. Alaska's specific guidelines determine when a resident of Alaska is eligible for federal services such as Medicaid, Medicare subsidies, and health plans purchased through the Health Insurance Marketplace.
State-Specific Eligibility and Application Requirements for Medicaid. Most states automatically enroll SSI recipients into the Medicaid program, but not all. The following states require a separate application, though their eligibility requirements are the same as the federal government:
The majority of the states follow the federal government rules for eligibility for Medicaid. However, the following states have requirements for Medicaid that vary from the federal government's criteria (and they require a separate application):
For more information, see our articles on Medicare and Medicaid.
Updated December 20, 2022