Gastroparesis is a condition that prevents a person's food from moving normally through the digestive tract due to abnormally weak muscles in the stomach wall. Sometimes the condition is so severe that the muscles can't function at all. The result is that the stomach doesn't empty or digest properly. This can lead to nausea, vomiting, blood sugar problems, and nutritional deficiencies. Severe cases of gastroparesis can result in malnutrition, the development of potentially fatal bezoars (hardened food material in the stomach), and dehydration.
Diet changes can sometimes help a little with the symptoms of gastroparesis, as can medications, though their side effects can be serious.
Doctors don't know the exact cause of gastroparesis, but it is often related to damage to the vagus nerve (this nerve helps regulate digestion). Conditions like diabetes or surgical procedures can both result in damage to the vagus nerve.
You may be eligible for disability based on gastroparesis if your symptoms are so severe that you are not able to do a substantial amount of work for at least 12 months. Social Security considers anything above approximately $18,000 per year to be a substantial amount of work.
If you satisfy this basic requirement, the Social Security Administration (SSA) will look to see whether your gastroparesis meets one of the medical conditions it has named in its Listing of Impairments (referred to as "the listings.") The conditions named in the listings are those that the SSA has decided are so severe that they usually warrant an automatic approval of benefits.
Even though gastroparesis doesn't have its own listing, you can still get approved under one of the digestive system listings. Here is an example:
If you are getting treatment for your gastroparesis and are following the prescribed treatment, you can get approved under the listing for weight loss if:
It is important to note that if you are not following your prescribed treatment, you will not be eligible for approval under this listing.
If an underlying cause has been identified for your gastroparesis, you may be able to qualify for disability benefits based on that listing. For example, gastroparesis can occur in people who have severe Type I or Type II diabetes.
You may still be eligible for disability even if your gastroparesis doesn't meet the listing, depending on any physical or non-physical limitations it causes.
If you don't meet a listing, the SSA will determine your residual functional capacity (RFC). Your RFC describes which of the physical aspects of a job you can do on a regular and sustained basis (full-time). To make this determination, the SSA will prepare an RFC report based on the medical records you have provided, assessing how your symptoms impact your ability to do certain exertional activities like your ability to stand, walk, lift, and carry. But because the symptoms of gastroparesis don't necessarily cause weakness, you may be more likely to get approved because of your non-exertional impairments.
A non-exertional impairment is one that affects your ability to do work-related activities that are not related to strength. Non-exertional impairments can result from the illness itself or from medications you take to treat your illness. Medications for gastroparesis can cause fatigue, sleepiness, and depression.
The SSA must consider any non-exertional impairments when deciding whether you can work. Here are some examples of non-exertional impairments:
Here is an example of how non-exertional impairments can affect someone with gastroparesis.
The SSA is required to consider the combined effect of any exertional or non-exertional impairments you experience. For more information, read our article How Combining Exertional and Non-Exertional Limitations Can Help You Get Disability.
Updated January 4, 2023
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