My employer's insurance company approved me for short-term disability benefits and I was hoping to get long-term disability benefits when the short-term benefits ran out. But in the meantime, my employer laid me off and terminated my disability insurance. Is this legal? Does this mean the insurance company can deny me LTD benefits?
As long as you were covered by long-term disability (LTD) insurance at the time you became unable to work, you may file for short- or long-term disability benefits, regardless of whether you're still on your employer's payroll. The decisive question is whether you were insured on your disability onset date, not whether you're insured on the date you file your claim.
Think of it this way: If John has a car insurance policy that expires on August 31, he will be covered for damage to his car from a hailstorm that occurred on August 30, even if he's been on vacation and doesn't file his claim until September 3, after his policy has expired. Disability insurance works the same way.
Ask your employer for a copy of your LTD plan, which will state the eligibility requirements for both short-term disability and long-term disability coverage. Generally, the requirements are the same for both policies. For instance, if the short-term disability plan requires you to work full-time (at least 35 hours per week) to be eligible for benefits, the long-term plan should as well. Make sure that you were working the required number of hours as of the date you filed your short-term disability claim. If you were, you should be eligible for long-term disability benefits as well.
Whether your employer can legally discharge you while you're on short-term disability is a separate question. It's important to remember that disability insurance is meant to provide income protection if you become unable to work. It does not offer any measure of job security. Your employer is under no obligation to continue employing you simply because you're receiving disability benefits. However, there are federal laws that may impact whether your employer can legally fire you, particularly the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows certain workers to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave per year to deal with personal or family medical issues. FMLA leave, which often runs concurrently with the receipt of short-term disability benefits, can be used to recuperate from your own illness or injury. While you can't legally be discharged for as long as you're on FMLA leave, exceeding twelve weeks of leave, even by a day, leaves you open to termination.
For FMLA to apply, the following two conditions must be met:
If you wish to take FMLA leave, you should inform your employer as soon as possible that your requested time off is related to a family or personal medical situation. When you return from unpaid leave, your employer must give you back your old position or one that is substantially similar, assuming you can still perform the essential duties of the job.
Even if you're not entitled to unpaid leave under the FMLA, you may be protected by state laws that extend FMLA-like benefits to employees of small and medium-sized companies. Check with your human resources department, your state's department of labor, or an employment law attorney to learn more about the job protection laws in your state.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers with 15 or more workers to make reasonable accommodations for employees with disabilities. The ADA defines a disability as a physical or mental impairment that "substantially limits a major life activity."
Under the ADA, an employer must interact with the employee to design accommodations that might allow the disabled employee to continue working. For example, the employer could offer a more flexible schedule, additional unpaid leave, wheelchair ramps, ergonomic furniture, or some other accommodation that might allow the disabled employee to continue to perform the essential duties of the position. The employer need not offer accommodations that would cause the business "undue hardship." Generally, courts have found that larger companies are better able to absorb the costs of accommodations than small businesses.
If an employer has attempted to make various reasonable accommodations and the individual is still not able to perform the essential duties of the job (or if no reasonable accommodations exist that would allow the individual to work), the ADA does not prevent the employer from firing the disabled employee.
For more information on how the FMLA and ADA interact to provide you with job protection, see our article on whether you can get fired while on disability leave.
If you've been discharged from a job while on disability leave and you think you should have been protected under the FMLA or ADA, you may want to contact an employment or disability law attorney to discuss your options. You may be entitled to money damages or reinstatement if your employer hasn't complied with the FMLA, the ADA, or applicable state laws.
Regardless of whether you were wrongfully terminated, however, you should be eligible for long-term disability benefits even though you were let go before your short-term disability benefits ran out. If your employer or its insurance company tries to deny you these benefits, contact an LTD lawyer.