You don't have to be disabled for any length of time before you apply for Social Security disability insurance (SSDI) or SSI disability benefits. You are eligible for to qualify for SSD or SSI benefits as soon as you stop being able to do a substantial amount of work. In most cases, Social Security defines substantial work as making $1,220 per month (in 2019). (Note the rules are different for self-employed and blind persons; see our article on substantially gainful work for details.)
When you can apply. Contrary to popular belief, there is no requirement that you have to be off work for six months or a year before you can apply for or collect disability benefits. You can apply for disability as soon as you quit work or are let go because of your medical condition—or when you realize you are disabled and can't go back to work. However, you must be expected to not be able to work for at least one year (or have an illness that is likely to result in your death) to qualify for Social Security or SSI disability. This is called the durational requirement. If Social Security doesn't believe your disability will last a full twelve months, it will send you a "durational denial" letter.
Durational requirement. How does Social Security know if you'll be unable to work for at least one year? If you have an abrupt accident or illness that suddenly and obviously makes it impossible for you to work, Social Security will estimate how long your inability to work will last. If your doctor's prognosis is that your illness or impairment will keep you from working for at least one year, and Social Security agrees, the agency can grant you disability benefits right away. For injuries that have caused obvious permanent disability, like an amputation of both hands, Social Security will make a decision on your case right away, but if your prognosis is not clear, Social Security may wait a few months to see if your condition improves (for example, after a stroke or heart attack). Social Security often presumes that a disabling impairment that has not improved within three months will last a year.
How working affects the disability decision. If you work right up until the time you apply for disability, this can throw doubt on your claim that you can't work (unless you had an abrupt injury that caused you to stop working). Otherwise, you'll need to provide evidence that, even though you were working when you applied for disability, you weren't succeeding. In part of your application for disability (the Adult Disability Report), Social Security asks you questions about your last job. If your medical condition caused you to be absent from your last job, or you had to reduce your hours due to your condition, make sure you include this information on the form. Likewise, if your employer had to give you special help for you to complete your job despite your impairment, include that information.
How working affects your backpay. Working up until you apply for disability will also affect your disability onset date (the date Social Security says your inability to work began). Unless you can show that your recent work was an unsuccessful work attempt (for example, you tried to work but had to quit because of the pain), your disability onset date won't be until after you stopped working. (For more information, see our article on the unsuccessful work attempt rules.) For these reasons, some disability lawyers actually recommend you wait to apply for disability for a few months after you stop working. But if you have a serious disability and can't work, you can apply for disability as soon as you stop work, since getting disability will take anywhere from three months to three years.
SSDI waiting period. The SSDI program does have a five-month waiting period, starting from the your onset date of disability, during which you won't receive benefits. So there will be five unpaid months before you get paid benefits, starting from your onset date.